Your browser version is outdated. We recommend that you update your browser to the latest version.

   Government of Canada

Statement from the PHAC (Public Health Agency of Canada

"When traveling outside of Canada, you may be at risk for a number of vaccine preventable illnesses.  You should consult a Health Care Provider or visit a Travel Health Specialist preferably 6 weeks before you travel.  You may need additional vaccines depending on your age, planned travel activities and local conditions.  Preventing disease through vaccination is a lifelong process."



Travel Health Specialists have in-depth knowledge of immunizations, thanks associated with specific destinations, and the implications of traveling with underlying conditions.  Therefore, a comprehensive consultation with a Travel Health Specialist is indicated for ALL travellers and is particularly important for those with complicated health history, special thanks (such as travelling at high altitudes, working in refugee camps, or exotic or complicated itineraries.

Twitter:      @globetravelhlth


Linkedin:    Hans B. Epp

Instagram: epp.hans


 Twitter PNG Transparent Images | PNG All  File:LinkedIn logo initials.png - Wikimedia Commons  Instagram - Wikipedia

Table 2-01. Information necessary for a risk assessment during pretravel consultations

Health Background

Past medical history

  • Age
  • Sex
  • Underlying conditions
  • Allergies (especially any pertaining to vaccines, eggs, or latex)
  • Medications

Special conditions

  • Pregnancy (including trimester)
  • Breastfeeding
  • Disability or handicap
  • Immunocompromising conditions or medications
  • Older age
  • Psychiatric condition
  • Seizure disorder
  • Recent surgery
  • Recent cardiopulmonary event
  • Recent cerebrovascular event
  • History of Guillain-Barré syndrome
  • Severe allergies

Immunization history

  • Routine vaccines
  • Travel vaccines

Prior travel experience

  • Experience with malaria chemoprophylaxis
  • Experience with altitude
  • Illnesses related to prior travel

Trip Details


  • Countries and specific regions, including order of countries if >1 country
  • Rural or urban


  • Trip duration
  • Season of travel
  • Time to departure

Reason for travel

  • Tourism
  • Business
  • Visiting friends and relatives
  • Volunteer, missionary, or aid work
  • Research or education
  • Adventure
  • Pilgrimage
  • Adoption
  • Seeking health care (medical tourism)

Travel style

  • Independent travel or package tour
  • Propensity for "adventurous" eating
  • Traveler risk tolerance
  • General hygiene standards at destination
  • Modes of transportation
  • Accommodations (such as tourist or luxury hotel, guest house, hostel or budget hotel, dormitory, local home or host family, or tent)

Special activities

  • Disaster relief
  • Medical care (providing or receiving)
  • High altitude
  • Diving
  • Cruise ship
  • Rafting or other water exposure
  • Cycling
  • Extreme sports
  • Spelunking
  • Anticipated interactions with animals
  • Anticipated sexual encounters